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Axis of symmetry

Axis Ax"is, n.; pl. Axes. [L. axis axis, axle. See Axle.] A straight line, real or imaginary, passing through a body, on which it revolves, or may be supposed to revolve; a line passing through a body or system around which the parts are symmetrically arranged. 2. (Math.) A straight line with respect to which the different parts of a magnitude are symmetrically arranged; as, the axis of a cylinder, i. e., the axis of a cone, that is, the straight line joining the vertex and the center of the base; the axis of a circle, any straight line passing through the center. 3. (Bot.) The stem; the central part, or longitudinal support, on which organs or parts are arranged; the central line of any body. --Gray. 4. (Anat.) (a) The second vertebra of the neck, or vertebra dentata. (b) Also used of the body only of the vertebra, which is prolonged anteriorly within the foramen of the first vertebra or atlas, so as to form the odontoid process or peg which serves as a pivot for the atlas and head to turn upon. 5. (Crystallog.) One of several imaginary lines, assumed in describing the position of the planes by which a crystal is bounded. 6. (Fine Arts) The primary or secondary central line of any design. Anticlinal axis (Geol.), a line or ridge from which the strata slope downward on the two opposite sides. Synclinal axis, a line from which the strata slope upward in opposite directions, so as to form a valley. Axis cylinder (Anat.), the neuraxis or essential, central substance of a nerve fiber; -- called also axis band, axial fiber, and cylinder axis. Axis in peritrochio, the wheel and axle, one of the mechanical powers. Axis of a curve (Geom.), a straight line which bisects a system of parallel chords of a curve; called a principal axis, when cutting them at right angles, in which case it divides the curve into two symmetrical portions, as in the parabola, which has one such axis, the ellipse, which has two, or the circle, which has an infinite number. The two axes of the ellipse are the major axis and the minor axis, and the two axes of the hyperbola are the transverse axis and the conjugate axis. Axis of a lens, the straight line passing through its center and perpendicular to its surfaces. Axis of a telescope or microscope, the straight line with which coincide the axes of the several lenses which compose it. Axes of co["o]rdinates in a plane, two straight lines intersecting each other, to which points are referred for the purpose of determining their relative position: they are either rectangular or oblique. Axes of co["o]rdinates in space, the three straight lines in which the co["o]rdinate planes intersect each other. Axis of a balance, that line about which it turns. Axis of oscillation, of a pendulum, a right line passing through the center about which it vibrates, and perpendicular to the plane of vibration. Axis of polarization, the central line around which the prismatic rings or curves are arranged. --Brewster. Axis of revolution (Descriptive Geom.), a straight line about which some line or plane is revolved, so that the several points of the line or plane shall describe circles with their centers in the fixed line, and their planes perpendicular to it, the line describing a surface of revolution, and the plane a solid of revolution. Axis of symmetry (Geom.), any line in a plane figure which divides the figure into two such parts that one part, when folded over along the axis, shall coincide with the other part. Axis of the equator, ecliptic, horizon (or other circle considered with reference to the sphere on which it lies), the diameter of the sphere which is perpendicular to the plane of the circle. --Hutton. Axis of the Ionic capital (Arch.), a line passing perpendicularly through the middle of the eye of the volute. Neutral axis (Mech.), the line of demarcation between the horizontal elastic forces of tension and compression, exerted by the fibers in any cross section of a girder. Optic axis of a crystal, the direction in which a ray of transmitted light suffers no double refraction. All crystals, not of the isometric system, are either uniaxial or biaxial. Optic axis, Visual axis (Opt.), the straight line passing through the center of the pupil, and perpendicular to the surface of the eye. Radical axis of two circles (Geom.), the straight line perpendicular to the line joining their centers and such that the tangents from any point of it to the two circles shall be equal to each other. Spiral axis (Arch.), the axis of a twisted column drawn spirally in order to trace the circumvolutions without. Axis of abscissas and Axis of ordinates. See Abscissa.

Axis Ax"is, n.; pl. Axes. [L. axis axis, axle. See Axle.] A straight line, real or imaginary, passing through a body, on which it revolves, or may be supposed to revolve; a line passing through a body or system around which the parts are symmetrically arranged. 2. (Math.) A straight line with respect to which the different parts of a magnitude are symmetrically arranged; as, the axis of a cylinder, i. e., the axis of a cone, that is, the straight line joining the vertex and the center of the base; the axis of a circle, any straight line passing through the center. 3. (Bot.) The stem; the central part, or longitudinal support, on which organs or parts are arranged; the central line of any body. --Gray. 4. (Anat.) (a) The second vertebra of the neck, or vertebra dentata. (b) Also used of the body only of the vertebra, which is prolonged anteriorly within the foramen of the first vertebra or atlas, so as to form the odontoid process or peg which serves as a pivot for the atlas and head to turn upon. 5. (Crystallog.) One of several imaginary lines, assumed in describing the position of the planes by which a crystal is bounded. 6. (Fine Arts) The primary or secondary central line of any design. Anticlinal axis (Geol.), a line or ridge from which the strata slope downward on the two opposite sides. Synclinal axis, a line from which the strata slope upward in opposite directions, so as to form a valley. Axis cylinder (Anat.), the neuraxis or essential, central substance of a nerve fiber; -- called also axis band, axial fiber, and cylinder axis. Axis in peritrochio, the wheel and axle, one of the mechanical powers. Axis of a curve (Geom.), a straight line which bisects a system of parallel chords of a curve; called a principal axis, when cutting them at right angles, in which case it divides the curve into two symmetrical portions, as in the parabola, which has one such axis, the ellipse, which has two, or the circle, which has an infinite number. The two axes of the ellipse are the major axis and the minor axis, and the two axes of the hyperbola are the transverse axis and the conjugate axis. Axis of a lens, the straight line passing through its center and perpendicular to its surfaces. Axis of a telescope or microscope, the straight line with which coincide the axes of the several lenses which compose it. Axes of co["o]rdinates in a plane, two straight lines intersecting each other, to which points are referred for the purpose of determining their relative position: they are either rectangular or oblique. Axes of co["o]rdinates in space, the three straight lines in which the co["o]rdinate planes intersect each other. Axis of a balance, that line about which it turns. Axis of oscillation, of a pendulum, a right line passing through the center about which it vibrates, and perpendicular to the plane of vibration. Axis of polarization, the central line around which the prismatic rings or curves are arranged. --Brewster. Axis of revolution (Descriptive Geom.), a straight line about which some line or plane is revolved, so that the several points of the line or plane shall describe circles with their centers in the fixed line, and their planes perpendicular to it, the line describing a surface of revolution, and the plane a solid of revolution. Axis of symmetry (Geom.), any line in a plane figure which divides the figure into two such parts that one part, when folded over along the axis, shall coincide with the other part. Axis of the equator, ecliptic, horizon (or other circle considered with reference to the sphere on which it lies), the diameter of the sphere which is perpendicular to the plane of the circle. --Hutton. Axis of the Ionic capital (Arch.), a line passing perpendicularly through the middle of the eye of the volute. Neutral axis (Mech.), the line of demarcation between the horizontal elastic forces of tension and compression, exerted by the fibers in any cross section of a girder. Optic axis of a crystal, the direction in which a ray of transmitted light suffers no double refraction. All crystals, not of the isometric system, are either uniaxial or biaxial. Optic axis, Visual axis (Opt.), the straight line passing through the center of the pupil, and perpendicular to the surface of the eye. Radical axis of two circles (Geom.), the straight line perpendicular to the line joining their centers and such that the tangents from any point of it to the two circles shall be equal to each other. Spiral axis (Arch.), the axis of a twisted column drawn spirally in order to trace the circumvolutions without. Axis of abscissas and Axis of ordinates. See Abscissa.

Dissymmetry

Dissymmetry Dis*sym"me*try, n. [Pref. dis- + symmetry.] Absence or defect of symmetry; asymmetry.

Dissymmetry Dis*sym"me*try, n. [Pref. dis- + symmetry.] Absence or defect of symmetry; asymmetry.

Pseudo-symmetry

Pseudo-symmetry Pseu`do-sym"me*try, n. [Pseudo- + symmetry.] (Crystallog.) A kind of symmetry characteristic of certain crystals which from twinning, or other causes, come to resemble forms of a system other than that to which they belong, as the apparently hexagonal prisms of aragonite.

Pseudo-symmetry Pseu`do-sym"me*try, n. [Pseudo- + symmetry.] (Crystallog.) A kind of symmetry characteristic of certain crystals which from twinning, or other causes, come to resemble forms of a system other than that to which they belong, as the apparently hexagonal prisms of aragonite.

Radial symmetry

Radial Ra"di*al, a. [Cf. F. radial. See Radius.] Of or pertaining to a radius or ray; consisting of, or like, radii or rays; radiated; as, (Bot.) radial projections; (Zo["o]l.) radial vessels or canals; (Anat.) the radial artery. Radial symmetry. (Biol.) See under Symmetry.

Radial Ra"di*al, a. [Cf. F. radial. See Radius.] Of or pertaining to a radius or ray; consisting of, or like, radii or rays; radiated; as, (Bot.) radial projections; (Zo["o]l.) radial vessels or canals; (Anat.) the radial artery. Radial symmetry. (Biol.) See under Symmetry.

Serial symmetry

Serial Se"ri*al, a. 1. Of or pertaining to a series; consisting of a series; appearing in successive parts or numbers; as, a serial work or publication. ``Classification . . . may be more or less serial.' --H. Spencer. 2. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to rows. --Gray. Serial homology. (Biol.) See under Homology. Serial symmetry. (Biol.) See under Symmetry.

Serial Se"ri*al, a. 1. Of or pertaining to a series; consisting of a series; appearing in successive parts or numbers; as, a serial work or publication. ``Classification . . . may be more or less serial.' --H. Spencer. 2. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to rows. --Gray. Serial homology. (Biol.) See under Homology. Serial symmetry. (Biol.) See under Symmetry.

Zonal symmetry

Zonal on"al, a. [L. zonalis.] Of or pertaining to a zone; having the form of a zone or zones. Zonal equation (Crystallog.), the mathematical relation which belongs to all the planes of a zone, and expresses their common position with reference to the axes. Zonal structure (Crystallog.), a structure characterized by the arrangements of color, inclusions, etc., of a crystal in parallel or concentric layers, which usually follow the outline of the crystal, and mark the changes that have taken place during its growth. Zonal symmetry. (Biol.) See the Note under Symmetry.

Zonal on"al, a. [L. zonalis.] Of or pertaining to a zone; having the form of a zone or zones. Zonal equation (Crystallog.), the mathematical relation which belongs to all the planes of a zone, and expresses their common position with reference to the axes. Zonal structure (Crystallog.), a structure characterized by the arrangements of color, inclusions, etc., of a crystal in parallel or concentric layers, which usually follow the outline of the crystal, and mark the changes that have taken place during its growth. Zonal symmetry. (Biol.) See the Note under Symmetry.

- Symmetry (from Ancient Gr****: συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious...

- Symmetry in biology refers to the symmetry observed in organisms, including plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. External symmetry can be easily seen...

- Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in geometry, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn...

- Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of these molecules according to their symmetry. Molecular...

- Facial symmetry is one specific measure of bodily symmetry. Along with traits such as averageness and youthfulness it influences judgments of aesthetic...

- In mathematics, reflection symmetry, line symmetry, mirror symmetry, or mirror-image symmetry is symmetry with respect to a reflection. That is, a figure...

- Origin of Symmetry is the second studio album by the English rock band Muse, released on 18 June 2001 through Taste Media. It was produced by John Leckie...

- In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged...

- In physics, symmetry breaking is a phenomenon in which (infinitesimally) small fluctuations acting on a system crossing a critical point decide the system's...

- A plane symmetry is a symmetry of a pattern in the Euclidean plane: that is, a transformation of the plane that carries any directioned lines to lines...

- Symmetry in biology refers to the symmetry observed in organisms, including plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. External symmetry can be easily seen...

- Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in geometry, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn...

- Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of these molecules according to their symmetry. Molecular...

- Facial symmetry is one specific measure of bodily symmetry. Along with traits such as averageness and youthfulness it influences judgments of aesthetic...

- In mathematics, reflection symmetry, line symmetry, mirror symmetry, or mirror-image symmetry is symmetry with respect to a reflection. That is, a figure...

- Origin of Symmetry is the second studio album by the English rock band Muse, released on 18 June 2001 through Taste Media. It was produced by John Leckie...

- In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged...

- In physics, symmetry breaking is a phenomenon in which (infinitesimally) small fluctuations acting on a system crossing a critical point decide the system's...

- A plane symmetry is a symmetry of a pattern in the Euclidean plane: that is, a transformation of the plane that carries any directioned lines to lines...

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