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Ardency Ar"den*cy, n.
1. Heat. [R.] --Sir T. Herbert.
2. Warmth of passion or affection; ardor; vehemence;
eagerness; as, the ardency of love or zeal.
Ardent Ar"dent, a. [OE. ardaunt, F. ardant, p. pr. of arder to
burn, fr. L. ardere.]
1. Hot or burning; causing a sensation of burning; fiery; as,
ardent spirits, that is, distilled liquors; an ardent
2. Having the appearance or quality of fire; fierce; glowing;
shining; as, ardent eyes. --Dryden.
3. Warm, applied to the passions and affections; passionate;
fervent; zealous; vehement; as, ardent love, feelings,
zeal, hope, temper.
An ardent and impetuous race. --Macaulay.
Syn: Burning; hot; fiery; glowing; intense; fierce; vehement;
eager; zealous; keen; fervid; fervent; passionate;
Ardent spiritsSpirit Spir"it, n. [OF. espirit, esperit, F. esprit, L.
spiritus, from spirare to breathe, to blow. Cf. Conspire,
Expire, Esprit, Sprite.]
1. Air set in motion by breathing; breath; hence, sometimes,
life itself. [Obs.] ``All of spirit would deprive.'
The mild air, with season moderate, Gently
attempered, and disposed eo well, That still it
breathed foorth sweet spirit. --Spenser.
2. A rough breathing; an aspirate, as the letter h; also, a
mark to denote aspiration; a breathing. [Obs.]
Be it a letter or spirit, we have great use for it.
3. Life, or living substance, considered independently of
corporeal existence; an intelligence conceived of apart
from any physical organization or embodiment; vital
essence, force, or energy, as distinct from matter.
4. The intelligent, immaterial and immortal part of man; the
soul, in distinction from the body in which it resides;
the agent or subject of vital and spiritual functions,
whether spiritual or material.
There is a spirit in man; and the inspiration of the
Almighty giveth them understanding. --Job xxxii.
As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith
without works is dead also. --James ii.
Spirit is a substance wherein thinking, knowing,
doubting, and a power of moving, do subsist.
5. Specifically, a disembodied soul; the human soul after it
has left the body.
Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was,
and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.
Ye gentle spirits far away, With whom we shared the
cup of grace. --Keble.
6. Any supernatural being, good or bad; an apparition; a
specter; a ghost; also, sometimes, a sprite,; a fairy; an
Whilst young, preserve his tender mind from all
impressions of spirits and goblins in the dark.
7. Energy, vivacity, ardor, enthusiasm, courage, etc.
``Write it then, quickly,' replied Bede; and
summoning all his spirits together, like the last
blaze of a candle going out, he indited it, and
8. One who is vivacious or lively; one who evinces great
activity or peculiar characteristics of mind or temper;
as, a ruling spirit; a schismatic spirit.
Such spirits as he desired to please, such would I
choose for my judges. --Dryden.
9. Temper or disposition of mind; mental condition or
disposition; intellectual or moral state; -- often in the
plural; as, to be cheerful, or in good spirits; to be
downhearted, or in bad spirits.
God has . . . made a spirit of building succeed a
spirit of pulling down. --South.
A perfect judge will read each work of wit With the
same spirit that its author writ. --Pope.
10. Intent; real meaning; -- opposed to the letter, or to
formal statement; also, characteristic quality,
especially such as is derived from the individual genius
or the personal character; as, the spirit of an
enterprise, of a document, or the like.
11. Tenuous, volatile, airy, or vapory substance, possessed
of active qualities.
All bodies have spirits . . . within them. --Bacon.
12. Any liquid produced by distillation; especially, alcohol,
the spirits, or spirit, of wine (it having been first
distilled from wine): -- often in the plural.
13. pl. Rum, whisky, brandy, gin, and other distilled liquors
having much alcohol, in distinction from wine and malt
14. (Med.) A solution in alcohol of a volatile principle. Cf.
Tincture. --U. S. Disp.
15. (Alchemy) Any one of the four substances, sulphur, sal
ammoniac, quicksilver, or arsenic (or, according to some,
The four spirits and the bodies seven. --Chaucer.
16. (Dyeing) Stannic chloride. See under Stannic.
Note: Spirit is sometimes joined with other words, forming
compounds, generally of obvious signification; as,
spirit-moving, spirit-searching, spirit-stirring, etc.
Astral spirits, Familiar spirits, etc. See under
Astral, Familiar, etc.
(a) (Physiol.) The fluid which at one time was supposed
to circulate through the nerves and was regarded as
the agent of sensation and motion; -- called also the
nervous fluid, or nervous principle.
(b) Physical health and energy; frolicsomeness;
Ardent spirits, strong alcoholic liquors, as brandy, rum,
whisky, etc., obtained by distillation.
Holy Spirit, or The Spirit (Theol.), the Spirit of God,
or the third person of the Trinity; the Holy Ghost. The
spirit also signifies the human spirit as influenced or
animated by the Divine Spirit.
Proof spirit. (Chem.) See under Proof.
Rectified spirit (Chem.), spirit rendered purer or more
concentrated by redistillation, so as to increase the
percentage of absolute alcohol.
Spirit butterfly (Zo["o]l.), any one of numerous species of
delicate butterflies of tropical America belonging to the
genus Ithomia. The wings are gauzy and nearly destitute
Spirit duck. (Zo["o]l.)
(a) The buffle-headed duck.
(b) The golden-eye.
Spirit lamp (Art), a lamp in which alcohol or methylated
spirit is burned.
Spirit level. See under Level.
Spirit of hartshorn. (Old Chem.) See under Hartshorn.
Spirit of Mindererus (Med.), an aqueous solution of acetate
of ammonium; -- named after R. Minderer, physician of
Spirit of nitrous ether (Med. Chem.), a pale yellow liquid,
of a sweetish taste and a pleasant ethereal odor. It is
obtained by the distillation of alcohol with nitric and
sulphuric acids, and consists essentially of ethyl nitrite
with a little acetic aldehyde. It is used as a
diaphoretic, diuretic, antispasmodic, etc. Called also
sweet spirit of niter.
Spirit of salt (Chem.), hydrochloric acid; -- so called
because obtained from salt and sulphuric acid. [Obs.]
Spirit of sense, the utmost refinement of sensation. [Obs.]
Spirits, or Spirit, of turpentine (Chem.), rectified
oil of turpentine, a transparent, colorless, volatile, and
very inflammable liquid, distilled from the turpentine of
the various species of pine; camphine. See Camphine.
Spirit of vitriol (Chem.), sulphuric acid; -- so called
because formerly obtained by the distillation of green
Spirit of vitriolic ether (Chem.) ether; -- often but
incorrectly called sulphuric ether. See Ether. [Obs.]
Spirits, or Spirit, of wine (Chem.), alcohol; -- so
called because formerly obtained by the distillation of
Spirit rapper, one who practices spirit rapping; a
``medium' so called.
Spirit rapping, an alleged form of communication with the
spirits of the dead by raps. See Spiritualism, 3.
Sweet spirit of niter. See Spirit of nitrous ether,
Ardently Ar"dent*ly, adv.
In an ardent manner; eagerly; with warmth; affectionately;
Ardentness Ar"dent*ness, n.
Botanic gardenBotanic Bo*tan"ic, Botanical Bo*tan"ic*al, a. [Cf. F.
botanique. See Botany.]
Of or pertaining to botany; relating to the study of plants;
as, a botanical system, arrangement, textbook, expedition. --
Botanic garden, a garden devoted to the culture of plants
collected for the purpose of illustrating the science of
Botanic physician, a physician whose medicines consist
chiefly of herbs and roots.
Caseharden Case"hard`en, v. t.
1. To subject to a process which converts the surface of iron
2. To render insensible to good influences.
Casehardened Case"hard`ened, a.
1. Having the surface hardened, as iron tools.
2. Hardened against, or insusceptible to, good influences;
rendered callous by persistence in wrongdoing or
resistance of good influences; -- said of persons.
CasehardeningCasehardening Case"hard`en*ing, n.
The act or process of converting the surface of iron into
Note: Casehardening is now commonly effected by cementation
with charcoal or other carbonizing material, the depth
and degree of hardening (carbonization) depending on
the time during which the iron is exposed to the heat.
Churchwarden Church"ward`en, n.
1. One of the officers (usually two) in an Episcopal church,
whose duties vary in different dioceses, but always
include the provision of what is necessary for the
2. A clay tobacco pipe, with a long tube. [Slang, Eng.]
There was a small wooden table placed in front of
the smoldering fire, with decanters, a jar of
tobacco, and two long churchwardens. --W. Black.
Churchwardenship Church"ward`en*ship, n.
The office of a churchwarden.
Covent GardenCovent Cov"ent (k?v"ent), n. [OF. covent, F. couvent. See
A convent or monastery. [Obs.] --Bale.
Covent Garden, a large square in London, so called because
originally it was the garden of a monastery.
Enharden En*hard"en, v. t. [Pref. en- + harden: cf. F.
enhardir to embolden.]
To harden; to embolden. [Obs.] --Howell.
FirewardenFirewarden Fire"ward`en, n.
An officer who has authority to direct in the extinguishing
of fires, or to order what precautions shall be taken against
fires; -- called also fireward. GardenGarden Gar"den, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gardened; p. pr. & vb.
To lay out or cultivate a garden; to labor in a garden; to
Garden Gar"den, v. t.
To cultivate as a garden.
Garden oracheOrach Or"ach, Orache Or"ache, n. [F. arroche, corrupted fr.
L. atriplex, Gr. ?. Cf. Arrach.] (Bot.)
A genus (Atriplex) of herbs or low shrubs of the Goosefoot
family, most of them with a mealy surface.
Garden orache, a plant (Atriplex hortensis), often used
as a pot herb; -- also called mountain spinach. Garden syringeSyringe Syr"inge, n. [F. seringue (cf. Pr. siringua, Sp.
jeringa, It. sciringa, scilinga), fg. Gr. ?, ?, a pipe or
tube; cf. Skr. svar to sound, and E. swarum. Cf. Syringa.]
A kind of small hand-pump for throwing a stream of liquid, or
for purposes of aspiration. It consists of a small
cylindrical barrel and piston, or a bulb of soft elastic
material, with or without valves, and with a nozzle which is
sometimes at the end of a flexible tube; -- used for
injecting animal bodies, cleansing wounds, etc.
Garden syringe. See Garden. Garden truckTruck Truck, n. [Cf. F. troc.]
1. Exchange of commodities; barter. --Hakluyt.
2. Commodities appropriate for barter, or for small trade;
small commodities; esp., in the United States, garden
vegetables raised for the market. [Colloq.]
3. The practice of paying wages in goods instead of money; --
called also truck system.
Garden truck, vegetables raised for market. [Colloq.] [U.
Truck farming, raising vegetables for market: market
gardening. [Colloq. U. S.] Garden wagtailWagtail Wag"tail`, n. (Zo["o]l.)
Any one of many species of Old World singing birds belonging
to Motacilla and several allied genera of the family
Motacillid[ae]. They have the habit of constantly jerking
their long tails up and down, whence the name.
Field wagtail, any one of several species of wagtails of
the genus Budytes having the tail shorter, the legs
longer, and the hind claw longer and straighter, than do
the water wagtails. Most of the species are yellow
beneath. Called also yellow wagtail.
Garden wagtail, the Indian black-breasted wagtail
Pied wagtail, the common European water wagtail (Motacilla
lugubris). It is variegated with black and white. The
name is applied also to other allied species having
similar colors. Called also pied dishwasher.
Wagtail flycatcher, a true flycatcher (Sauloprocta
motacilloides) common in Southern Australia, where it is
very tame, and frequents stock yards and gardens and often
builds its nest about houses; -- called also black
(a) Any one of several species of wagtails of the restricted
genus Motacilla. They live chiefly on the shores of
ponds and streams.
(b) The American water thrush. See Water thrush.
Wood wagtail, an Asiatic wagtail; (Calobates sulphurea)
having a slender bill and short legs. GardenedGarden Gar"den, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gardened; p. pr. & vb.
To lay out or cultivate a garden; to labor in a garden; to
Gardener Gar"den*er, n.
One who makes and tends a garden; a horticulturist.
Gardenia Garde"ni*a, n. [NL.] (Bot.)
A genus of plants, some species of which produce beautiful
and fragrant flowers; Cape jasmine; -- so called in honor of
Dr. Alexander Garden.
Gardenia floridaJasmine Jas"mine, n. [F. jasmin, Sp. jazmin, Ar. y[=a]sm[=i]n,
Pers. y[=a]sm[=i]n; cf. It. gesmino, gelsomino. Cf.
A shrubby plant of the genus Jasminum, bearing flowers of a
peculiarly fragrant odor. The J. officinale, common in the
south of Europe, bears white flowers. The Arabian jasmine is
J. Sambac, and, with J. angustifolia, comes from the East
Indies. The yellow false jasmine in the Gelseminum
sempervirens (see Gelsemium). Several other plants are
called jasmine in the West Indies, as species of Calotropis
and Faramea. [Written also jessamine.]
Cape jasmine, or Cape jessamine, the Gardenia florida,
a shrub with fragrant white flowers, a native of China,
and hardy in the Southern United States. GardeningGarden Gar"den, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gardened; p. pr. & vb.
To lay out or cultivate a garden; to labor in a garden; to
Gardening Gar"den*ing, n.
The art of occupation of laying out and cultivating gardens;
Meaning of Arden from wikipedia
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