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Atmospherically

Atmospherically At`mos*pher"ic*al*ly, adv. In relation to the atmosphere.

Atmospherically At`mos*pher"ic*al*ly, adv. In relation to the atmosphere.

Helispherical

Helispheric Hel`i*spher"ic, Helispherical Hel`i*spher"ic*al, a. [Helix + spheric, spherical.] Spiral. Helispherical line (Math.). the rhomb line in navigation. [R.]

Helispheric Hel`i*spher"ic, Helispherical Hel`i*spher"ic*al, a. [Helix + spheric, spherical.] Spiral. Helispherical line (Math.). the rhomb line in navigation. [R.]

Helispherical line

Helispheric Hel`i*spher"ic, Helispherical Hel`i*spher"ic*al, a. [Helix + spheric, spherical.] Spiral. Helispherical line (Math.). the rhomb line in navigation. [R.]

Helispheric Hel`i*spher"ic, Helispherical Hel`i*spher"ic*al, a. [Helix + spheric, spherical.] Spiral. Helispherical line (Math.). the rhomb line in navigation. [R.]

Monospherical

Monospherical Mon`o*spher"ic*al, a. [Mono- + spherical.] Consisting of one sphere only.

Monospherical Mon`o*spher"ic*al, a. [Mono- + spherical.] Consisting of one sphere only.

Perispherical

Perispheric Per`i*spher"ic, Perispherical Per`i*spher"ic*al, a. Exactly spherical; globular.

Perispheric Per`i*spher"ic, Perispherical Per`i*spher"ic*al, a. Exactly spherical; globular.

Semispherical

Semispheric Sem`i*spher"ic, Semispherical Sem`i*spher"ic*al, a. Having the figure of a half sphere. --Kirwan.

Semispheric Sem`i*spher"ic, Semispherical Sem`i*spher"ic*al, a. Having the figure of a half sphere. --Kirwan.

Spherical coordinates

Note: Co["o]rdinates are of several kinds, consisting in some of the different cases, of the following elements, namely: (a) (Geom. of Two Dimensions) The abscissa and ordinate of any point, taken together; as the abscissa PY and ordinate PX of the point P (Fig. 2, referred to the co["o]rdinate axes AY and AX. (b) Any radius vector PA (Fig. 1), together with its angle of inclination to a fixed line, APX, by which any point A in the same plane is referred to that fixed line, and a fixed point in it, called the pole, P. (c) (Geom. of Three Dimensions) Any three lines, or distances, PB, PC, PD (Fig. 3), taken parallel to three co["o]rdinate axes, AX, AY, AZ, and measured from the corresponding co["o]rdinate fixed planes, YAZ, XAZ, XAY, to any point in space, P, whose position is thereby determined with respect to these planes and axes. (d) A radius vector, the angle which it makes with a fixed plane, and the angle which its projection on the plane makes with a fixed line line in the plane, by which means any point in space at the free extremity of the radius vector is referred to that fixed plane and fixed line, and a fixed point in that line, the pole of the radius vector. Cartesian co["o]rdinates. See under Cartesian. Geographical co["o]rdinates, the latitude and longitude of a place, by which its relative situation on the globe is known. The height of the above the sea level constitutes a third co["o]rdinate. Polar co["o]rdinates, co["o]rdinates made up of a radius vector and its angle of inclination to another line, or a line and plane; as those defined in (b) and (d) above. Rectangular co["o]rdinates, co["o]rdinates the axes of which intersect at right angles. Rectilinear co["o]rdinates, co["o]rdinates made up of right lines. Those defined in (a) and (c) above are called also Cartesian co["o]rdinates. Trigonometrical or Spherical co["o]rdinates, elements of reference, by means of which the position of a point on the surface of a sphere may be determined with respect to two great circles of the sphere. Trilinear co["o]rdinates, co["o]rdinates of a point in a plane, consisting of the three ratios which the three distances of the point from three fixed lines have one to another.

Note: Co["o]rdinates are of several kinds, consisting in some of the different cases, of the following elements, namely: (a) (Geom. of Two Dimensions) The abscissa and ordinate of any point, taken together; as the abscissa PY and ordinate PX of the point P (Fig. 2, referred to the co["o]rdinate axes AY and AX. (b) Any radius vector PA (Fig. 1), together with its angle of inclination to a fixed line, APX, by which any point A in the same plane is referred to that fixed line, and a fixed point in it, called the pole, P. (c) (Geom. of Three Dimensions) Any three lines, or distances, PB, PC, PD (Fig. 3), taken parallel to three co["o]rdinate axes, AX, AY, AZ, and measured from the corresponding co["o]rdinate fixed planes, YAZ, XAZ, XAY, to any point in space, P, whose position is thereby determined with respect to these planes and axes. (d) A radius vector, the angle which it makes with a fixed plane, and the angle which its projection on the plane makes with a fixed line line in the plane, by which means any point in space at the free extremity of the radius vector is referred to that fixed plane and fixed line, and a fixed point in that line, the pole of the radius vector. Cartesian co["o]rdinates. See under Cartesian. Geographical co["o]rdinates, the latitude and longitude of a place, by which its relative situation on the globe is known. The height of the above the sea level constitutes a third co["o]rdinate. Polar co["o]rdinates, co["o]rdinates made up of a radius vector and its angle of inclination to another line, or a line and plane; as those defined in (b) and (d) above. Rectangular co["o]rdinates, co["o]rdinates the axes of which intersect at right angles. Rectilinear co["o]rdinates, co["o]rdinates made up of right lines. Those defined in (a) and (c) above are called also Cartesian co["o]rdinates. Trigonometrical or Spherical co["o]rdinates, elements of reference, by means of which the position of a point on the surface of a sphere may be determined with respect to two great circles of the sphere. Trilinear co["o]rdinates, co["o]rdinates of a point in a plane, consisting of the three ratios which the three distances of the point from three fixed lines have one to another.

Spherical excess

Excess Ex*cess", n. [OE. exces, excess, ecstasy, L. excessus a going out, loss of self-possession, fr. excedere, excessum, to go out, go beyond: cf. F. exc[`e]s. See Exceed.] 1. The state of surpassing or going beyond limits; the being of a measure beyond sufficiency, necessity, or duty; that which exceeds what is usual or prover; immoderateness; superfluity; superabundance; extravagance; as, an excess of provisions or of light. To gild refined gold, to paint the lily, To throw a perfume on the violet, . . . Is wasteful and ridiculous excess. --Shak. That kills me with excess of grief, this with excess of joy. --Walsh. 2. An undue indulgence of the appetite; transgression of proper moderation in natural gratifications; intemperance; dissipation. Be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess. --Eph. v. 18. Thy desire . . . leads to no excess That reaches blame. --Milton. 3. The degree or amount by which one thing or number exceeds another; remainder; as, the difference between two numbers is the excess of one over the other. Spherical excess (Geom.), the amount by which the sum of the three angles of a spherical triangle exceeds two right angles. The spherical excess is proportional to the area of the triangle.

Excess Ex*cess", n. [OE. exces, excess, ecstasy, L. excessus a going out, loss of self-possession, fr. excedere, excessum, to go out, go beyond: cf. F. exc[`e]s. See Exceed.] 1. The state of surpassing or going beyond limits; the being of a measure beyond sufficiency, necessity, or duty; that which exceeds what is usual or prover; immoderateness; superfluity; superabundance; extravagance; as, an excess of provisions or of light. To gild refined gold, to paint the lily, To throw a perfume on the violet, . . . Is wasteful and ridiculous excess. --Shak. That kills me with excess of grief, this with excess of joy. --Walsh. 2. An undue indulgence of the appetite; transgression of proper moderation in natural gratifications; intemperance; dissipation. Be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess. --Eph. v. 18. Thy desire . . . leads to no excess That reaches blame. --Milton. 3. The degree or amount by which one thing or number exceeds another; remainder; as, the difference between two numbers is the excess of one over the other. Spherical excess (Geom.), the amount by which the sum of the three angles of a spherical triangle exceeds two right angles. The spherical excess is proportional to the area of the triangle.

Spherical sector

Sector Sec"tor, n. [L., properly, a cutter, fr. secare, sectum, to cut: cf. F. secteur. See Section.] 1. (Geom.) A part of a circle comprehended between two radii and the included arc. 2. A mathematical instrument, consisting of two rulers connected at one end by a joint, each arm marked with several scales, as of equal parts, chords, sines, tangents, etc., one scale of each kind on each arm, and all on lines radiating from the common center of motion. The sector is used for plotting, etc., to any scale. 3. An astronomical instrument, the limb of which embraces a small portion only of a circle, used for measuring differences of declination too great for the compass of a micrometer. When it is used for measuring zenith distances of stars, it is called a zenith sector. Dip sector, an instrument used for measuring the dip of the horizon. Sector of a sphere, or Spherical sector, the solid generated by the revolution of the sector of a circle about one of its radii, or, more rarely, about any straight line drawn in the plane of the sector through its vertex.

Sector Sec"tor, n. [L., properly, a cutter, fr. secare, sectum, to cut: cf. F. secteur. See Section.] 1. (Geom.) A part of a circle comprehended between two radii and the included arc. 2. A mathematical instrument, consisting of two rulers connected at one end by a joint, each arm marked with several scales, as of equal parts, chords, sines, tangents, etc., one scale of each kind on each arm, and all on lines radiating from the common center of motion. The sector is used for plotting, etc., to any scale. 3. An astronomical instrument, the limb of which embraces a small portion only of a circle, used for measuring differences of declination too great for the compass of a micrometer. When it is used for measuring zenith distances of stars, it is called a zenith sector. Dip sector, an instrument used for measuring the dip of the horizon. Sector of a sphere, or Spherical sector, the solid generated by the revolution of the sector of a circle about one of its radii, or, more rarely, about any straight line drawn in the plane of the sector through its vertex.

Spherical ungula

Ungula Un"gu*la, n.; pl. Ungul[ae]. [L., a claw, hoof, from unguis a nail, claw, hoof.] 1. A hoof, claw, or talon. 2. (Geom.) A section or part of a cylinder, cone, or other solid of revolution, cut off by a plane oblique to the base; -- so called from its resemblance to the hoof of a horse. 3. (Bot.) Same as Unguis, 3. Spherical ungula (Geom.), a part of a sphere bounded by two planes intersecting in a diameter and by a line of the surface of the sphere.

Ungula Un"gu*la, n.; pl. Ungul[ae]. [L., a claw, hoof, from unguis a nail, claw, hoof.] 1. A hoof, claw, or talon. 2. (Geom.) A section or part of a cylinder, cone, or other solid of revolution, cut off by a plane oblique to the base; -- so called from its resemblance to the hoof of a horse. 3. (Bot.) Same as Unguis, 3. Spherical ungula (Geom.), a part of a sphere bounded by two planes intersecting in a diameter and by a line of the surface of the sphere.

Spherical wedge

Wedge Wedge, n. [OE. wegge, AS. wecg; akin to D. wig, wigge, OHG. wecki, G. weck a (wedge-shaped) loaf, Icel. veggr, Dan. v[ae]gge, Sw. vigg, and probably to Lith. vagis a peg. Cf. Wigg.] 1. A piece of metal, or other hard material, thick at one end, and tapering to a thin edge at the other, used in splitting wood, rocks, etc., in raising heavy bodies, and the like. It is one of the six elementary machines called the mechanical powers. See Illust. of Mechanical powers, under Mechanical. 2. (Geom.) A solid of five sides, having a rectangular base, two rectangular or trapezoidal sides meeting in an edge, and two triangular ends. 3. A mass of metal, especially when of a wedgelike form. ``Wedges of gold.' --Shak. 4. Anything in the form of a wedge, as a body of troops drawn up in such a form. In warlike muster they appear, In rhombs, and wedges, and half-moons, and wings. --Milton. 5. The person whose name stands lowest on the list of the classical tripos; -- so called after a person (Wedgewood) who occupied this position on the first list of 1828. [Cant, Cambridge Univ., Eng.] --C. A. Bristed. Fox wedge. (Mach. & Carpentry) See under Fox. Spherical wedge (Geom.), the portion of a sphere included between two planes which intersect in a diameter.

Wedge Wedge, n. [OE. wegge, AS. wecg; akin to D. wig, wigge, OHG. wecki, G. weck a (wedge-shaped) loaf, Icel. veggr, Dan. v[ae]gge, Sw. vigg, and probably to Lith. vagis a peg. Cf. Wigg.] 1. A piece of metal, or other hard material, thick at one end, and tapering to a thin edge at the other, used in splitting wood, rocks, etc., in raising heavy bodies, and the like. It is one of the six elementary machines called the mechanical powers. See Illust. of Mechanical powers, under Mechanical. 2. (Geom.) A solid of five sides, having a rectangular base, two rectangular or trapezoidal sides meeting in an edge, and two triangular ends. 3. A mass of metal, especially when of a wedgelike form. ``Wedges of gold.' --Shak. 4. Anything in the form of a wedge, as a body of troops drawn up in such a form. In warlike muster they appear, In rhombs, and wedges, and half-moons, and wings. --Milton. 5. The person whose name stands lowest on the list of the classical tripos; -- so called after a person (Wedgewood) who occupied this position on the first list of 1828. [Cant, Cambridge Univ., Eng.] --C. A. Bristed. Fox wedge. (Mach. & Carpentry) See under Fox. Spherical wedge (Geom.), the portion of a sphere included between two planes which intersect in a diameter.

Subspherical

Subspherical Sub*spher"ic*al, a. Nearly spherical; having a figure resembling that of a sphere.

Subspherical Sub*spher"ic*al, a. Nearly spherical; having a figure resembling that of a sphere.

- 1702. King of spades: Spheres Spherical cap Spherical polygon Spherical sector Spherical segment Spherical wedge Spherical zone 3-sphere Affine sphere Alexander...

- Spherical Earth or Earth's curvature refers to the approximation of figure of the Earth as a sphere. The earliest do****ented mention of the concept dates...

- In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers:...

- In mathematics and physical science, spherical harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere. They are often emplo**** in solving...

- The spherical cow is a humorous metaphor for highly simplified scientific models of complex phenomena. Originating in theoretical physics, the metaphor...

- Sphericity is a measure of how closely the shape of an object resembles that of a perfect sphere. For example, the sphericity of the balls inside a ball...

- uses the standard notation ISO 80000-2, which su****des ISO 31-11, for spherical coordinates (other sources may reverse the definitions of θ and φ): The...

- In optics, spherical aberration (SA) is a type of aberration found in optical systems that have elements with spherical surfaces. Lenses and curved mirrors...

- Spherical trigonometry is the branch of spherical geometry that deals with the relationships between trigonometric functions of the sides and angles of...

- geometry, a spherical segment is the solid defined by cutting a sphere or a ball with a pair of parallel planes. It can be thought of as a spherical cap with...

- Spherical Earth or Earth's curvature refers to the approximation of figure of the Earth as a sphere. The earliest do****ented mention of the concept dates...

- In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers:...

- In mathematics and physical science, spherical harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere. They are often emplo**** in solving...

- The spherical cow is a humorous metaphor for highly simplified scientific models of complex phenomena. Originating in theoretical physics, the metaphor...

- Sphericity is a measure of how closely the shape of an object resembles that of a perfect sphere. For example, the sphericity of the balls inside a ball...

- uses the standard notation ISO 80000-2, which su****des ISO 31-11, for spherical coordinates (other sources may reverse the definitions of θ and φ): The...

- In optics, spherical aberration (SA) is a type of aberration found in optical systems that have elements with spherical surfaces. Lenses and curved mirrors...

- Spherical trigonometry is the branch of spherical geometry that deals with the relationships between trigonometric functions of the sides and angles of...

- geometry, a spherical segment is the solid defined by cutting a sphere or a ball with a pair of parallel planes. It can be thought of as a spherical cap with...

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